only thing necessary for the triumph of evil is for good men
to do nothing.” Edmund Burke
essay is designed to give a bird's eye view of the basic
principles of Community Development and how an Upsilonian,
with his brothers or with non-Upsilonians, can apply them to
organize and implement effective programs to bring some
improvement in their community.
age, mankind is living in a world of constant change, of
tremendous advancement face-to-face with extreme
backwardness - of people everywhere gaining new hope and
demanding "the better life". It is widely known that the
power to advance lies within the hands of the people
themselves. This presents a challenge and opportunity to
Upsilonians with vigor, good will and foresight, to be
instruments of possibility and contribute to the building of
standard pattern of development can be created to fit every
community. While the basic principles of
Community Development remain the same, the actual way in
which they are applied will depend upon the people doing it
and the prevailing local conditions they are faced with.
Initiative, imagination, experience and dedication are
needed to make the process work.
Nature and Objectives of Community
Development is a broad approach to a country's development.
It is not limited to any specific field; it is concerned
with the entire community, including all human activities
and attitudes that make for a wholesome and progressive
place in which to live. It endeavors to
create conditions that will enable people to continually
grow in their capacity to deal effectively and
constructively with all problems with which they may be
Followed in Community Development
Community Development program must be tailor-made to fit
local conditions. What is right for one community does not
necessarily apply to another. The dynamic concept of
Community Development can appeal to the action-conscious
Upsilonian but enthusiasm alone cannot produce results. A
certain knowledge of how to apply the right steps in their
proper sequence is essential. These are:
that what you do for the community is really needed and
acceptable to the people who will benefit from it. The
Investigation step involves a broad process of
fact-finding to determine the good and bad features of the
community. Without the this step, it may happen that a
completed project may turn out to be meaningless or of
little value to the community. A sample survey is the usual
way of doing an investigation.
course of the survey, you get in touch with a lot of people.
The survey will help spark interest in public affairs. It
will start "the man in the street" thinking and possibly
acting instead of being content to sit and watch "the other
guy" do the job. A survey can help convert passive observers
to active participants.
conducting a survey, you will demonstrate to the public that
the Upsilon is not just another self-interest group, but one
interested in the thoughts, opinions and welfare of all
citizens. With this, you will be identified as someone who
belongs, not as an outsider. Even at this early stage, you
will be able to give the people a sense of participation
which is so vital in Community Development. In return, the
people will give you their confidence.
not always be necessary to conduct a statistical sample
survey by personal interviews.
Oftentimes, a simple observation tour of the place, visiting
with some key people, or a study of existing records in
certain governmental offices will be sufficient to uncover
the problems. What is important is to
have a reliable means to determine the real and most
pressing needs of the community. It is also necessary to
learn what resources are available for solving these
problems and to identify other groups that may already be
step is Analysis. Analysis
involves interpretation of information gathered during the
investigation. During the analysis, it
will become clear which problems are real and where greatest
needs exist. Determine the priorities by listing the
problems in the order of their importance and urgency. Then
decide on two things:
you yourself do about the problems? This will be the basis
for planning direct action projects.
problems should be brought to the attention of the local
government and other organizations?
These will be the purpose of your role as catalytic agent.
rarely be alone in undertaking Community Development.
Often, the survey may reveal that other groups and
governmental agencies are also actively involved.
In order to avoid duplication of effort, get together
with all interested groups for the purpose of coordinating
and synchronizing each other’s efforts.
It is not
advisable to undertake projects without performing an
investigation and analysis. If change is
to produce progress in your community it must come from the
felt needs of the people. These needs
can only be determined with an investigation and data
identifying the problems, you are now ready to develop a
plan of action to solve them. This is the Planning
stage. It is essential at this stage to obtain the
cooperation and participation of as many as possible of the
leaders and ordinary citizens of the community so that they
can really feel being part of the process. Utilize various
communication techniques such as brainstorming, reporting on
results of similar projects in the past if any, and
consultation with experts in the field. Put all plans on
paper and have them approved, if necessary, by the leaders
of the community. The written plan should cover:
objective of the project and how to measure its success
to achieve the objective
*Promotional plan to gain full support of the community
requirements and definition of duties
is the next step. After planning our work, we work our plan.
The execution step consists of two parts:
*Undertaking action projects to solve the problems by
the role of “catalytic agents” to stimulate or induce other
people to act on problems which are beyond your capacity to
it takes a long time before results are achieved but do not
be discouraged. Just one successful cooperative project, no
matter how small, will give the necessary self-confidence
for taking up another one. Negative responses, resistance to
change, and setbacks are only temporary and considered to be
part of a development process. This will be a crucible test
for the quality of our resolve and leadership. In many
instances, only your sheer tenacity of purpose can overcome
apathy and discouragement, and avoid the “ningas cogon”
Variety of Projects
variety of Community Development projects have been
undertaken by various groups around the world, and many more
are waiting for your attention. These
projects may be classified according to five major groups:
Public Service Improvements and City Beautification; Health
and Sanitation; Education and Recreation; Economic
Development; Civic and Governmental Affairs.
projects are only a means to an end.
Primary focus should always be given to what happens to
Upsilonians and the rest of the citizens. Remember, the aim
of Community Development is to mold individuals to become
intelligent perceptive members of society who strive to
become persons of greater value to their fellowmen.
completion of action projects will not put an end to the
Community Development program. What comes next is just as
important as any of the four steps already completed. It is
Evaluation. Here you
determine whether the results of your work measure up to the
objectives you set beforehand. Did your
projects contribute to the development of intelligent
citizens and self-reliant communities? An evaluation will
help answer that question.
We live in
a world of change. Just as a community undergoes changes
with the passing of time, so must a program be evaluated and
renewed with ever changing conditions. It is also advisable
to re-evaluate the survey periodically because after a time,
the data become obsolete. For example, new government
officials and organization leaders get elected, often
resulting in changes in policy and emphasis. Communities do
not standstill. New problems arise which
may make old ones secondary.
is also a process by which groups and individuals learn from
their mistakes and, thereby, improve their methods of
operation. Evaluation is an integral part of a development
program and should be built right into it.
Summary and Conclusion
involvement in Community Development you acquire a great
deal of knowledge about our community by means of the
Investigation. The strong and weak
points of the community are recognized and problem areas are
identified during Analysis of the data
gathered. Planning follows to map out a plan of
action to solve the problems. In
Executing the plan of action, the people
themselves get involved in solving the problems of the
community. While undertaking action projects and acting as
“catalytic agents”, Upsilonians gain valuable
experience in the art of persuasion, human relations, and
leadership. You also may have opportunities to 'gather light
to scatter'. The community improves, but
more important, the people develop their ability for
self-help and cooperative action. After
completing projects, you undertake an Evaluation
to determine whether the objectives of the program are, in
fact, being realized. The survey data are reviewed and a new
community study is started which in turn leads to a
New Cycle of Community Development activities.
Community Development Program, therefore, is a cycle of
activities consisting of INVESTIGATION-
The completion of a cycle lays the foundation for the start
of a new one. Community Development does not end. It should
not end; because we live in a world of change.
Lincoln once said, "I would like to see a man proud of the
place in which he lives; and so live that the place will be
proud of him." You can rest assured,
when you undertake Community Development, you will be proud
of your community and your community will be proud of you!
Special Notes for Resident Chapters
1. It may
be advisable to solicit the help of alumni fellows with
managerial and business experience to act as consultants and
resource persons when you undertake CD projects.
2. In your
case, the campus is your community; the students, faculty
members, and service personnel are the citizens; University
officials are your local government officials; other student
organizations and clubs are the other community
studying the C.D. Concept and becoming confident that it is
something you want to undertake, you may initiate your CD
Program with a Seminar on CD, inviting the citizens of the
campus to attend. Announce that the
Chapter is embarking on a CD Program for the purpose of
effecting progress in a specific area of need in the campus
and that participation from all interested individuals and
parties will be welcome and appreciated. This could be a
major vehicle for recruitment.
will want to require the participation of neophytes in all
phases of your CD Program. This will provide many
opportunities for them to show their resourcefulness,
initiative, and character under varying conditions and
stretch of time. They should not be allowed to act on the CD
Program on their own as a group without supervision from the
resident fellows. Their satisfactory performance on the CD
Program can be a condition for their admission to the
fraternity. At the same time, the CD Program will provide
training in leadership to resident fellows while they
perform some service to the community.
This intoduction is based on Community Development
Seminars conducted in Central and South America in 1966 by
Rafael (Piling) Francia ’55 as a Staff
Officer of Junior Chamber International.
Introduction to Community Development – by Rafael S. Francia’55