Chapter 3  The Republic of the Philippines

·          What Pinoys Can Do To Help Our Country – by Alexander L. Lacson

·      Introduction to Community Development – by Rafael S. Francia’55

·      Governance and Anti-Corruption – from The World Bank

·      What is Good Governance ? – from UNESCAP

·      The Free and Virtuous Society – by George Weigel

·      My Experiences as a Public Servant – by Edgardo B. Espiritu ‘55


Chapter 4  The World

·      Being a Kind Person – adapted by Rafael Francia ‘55

·      Materials on Conflict Resolution – compiled by Pietro Reyes III ‘69

·      Prayer for Peace – by St. Francis of Assisi



·      Anyway – by Mother Teresa of Calcutta







Introduction to Community Development

The only thing necessary for the triumph of evil is for good men to do nothing.” Edmund Burke

This essay is designed to give a bird's eye view of the basic principles of Community Development and how an Upsilonian, with his brothers or with non-Upsilonians, can apply them to organize and implement effective programs to bring some improvement in their community.

In this age, mankind is living in a world of constant change, of tremendous advancement face-to-face with extreme backwardness - of people everywhere gaining new hope and demanding "the better life". It is widely known that the power to advance lies within the hands of the people themselves. This presents a challenge and opportunity to Upsilonians with vigor, good will and foresight, to be instruments of possibility and contribute to the building of better communities.

No standard pattern of development can be created to fit every community.  While the basic principles of Community Development remain the same, the actual way in which they are applied will depend upon the people doing it and the prevailing local conditions they are faced with. Initiative, imagination, experience and dedication are needed to make the process work.

Nature and Objectives of Community Development

Community Development is a broad approach to a country's development. It is not limited to any specific field; it is concerned with the entire community, including all human activities and attitudes that make for a wholesome and progressive place in which to live.  It endeavors to create conditions that will enable people to continually grow in their capacity to deal effectively and constructively with all problems with which they may be confronted.

 Steps Followed in Community Development

 A Community Development program must be tailor-made to fit local conditions. What is right for one community does not necessarily apply to another. The dynamic concept of Community Development can appeal to the action-conscious Upsilonian but enthusiasm alone cannot produce results. A certain knowledge of how to apply the right steps in their proper sequence is essential. These are: Investigation-Analysis-Planning-Execution-Evaluation.

Be sure that what you do for the community is really needed and acceptable to the people who will benefit from it. The Investigation step involves a broad process of fact-finding to determine the good and bad features of the community. Without the this step, it may happen that a completed project may turn out to be meaningless or of little value to the community. A sample survey is the usual way of doing an investigation.  

In the course of the survey, you get in touch with a lot of people. The survey will help spark interest in public affairs. It will start "the man in the street" thinking and possibly acting instead of being content to sit and watch "the other guy" do the job. A survey can help convert passive observers to active participants.

By conducting a survey, you will demonstrate to the public that the Upsilon is not just another self-interest group, but one interested in the thoughts, opinions and welfare of all citizens. With this, you will be identified as someone who belongs, not as an outsider. Even at this early stage, you will be able to give the people a sense of participation which is so vital in Community Development. In return, the people will give you their confidence.

It will not always be necessary to conduct a statistical sample survey by personal interviews.  Oftentimes, a simple observation tour of the place, visiting with some key people, or a study of existing records in certain governmental offices will be sufficient to uncover the problems.  What is important is to have a reliable means to determine the real and most pressing needs of the community. It is also necessary to learn what resources are available for solving these problems and to identify other groups that may already be addressing them.

The next step is Analysis.  Analysis involves interpretation of information gathered during the investigation.  During the analysis, it will become clear which problems are real and where greatest needs exist. Determine the priorities by listing the problems in the order of their importance and urgency. Then decide on two things:

*What can you yourself do about the problems? This will be the basis for planning direct action projects.

*What problems should be brought to the attention of the local government and other organizations?  These will be the purpose of your role as catalytic agent.

You will rarely be alone in undertaking Community Development.  Often, the survey may reveal that other groups and governmental agencies are also actively involved.  In order to avoid duplication of effort, get together with all interested groups for the purpose of coordinating and synchronizing each other’s efforts.

It is not advisable to undertake projects without performing an investigation and analysis.  If change is to produce progress in your community it must come from the felt needs of the people.  These needs can only be determined with an investigation and data analysis.

After identifying the problems, you are now ready to develop a plan of action to solve them. This is the Planning stage. It is essential at this stage to obtain the cooperation and participation of as many as possible of the leaders and ordinary citizens of the community so that they can really feel being part of the process. Utilize various communication techniques such as brainstorming, reporting on results of similar projects in the past if any, and consultation with experts in the field. Put all plans on paper and have them approved, if necessary, by the leaders of the community. The written plan should cover:

*The objective of the project and how to measure its success

*The means to achieve the objective

*Promotional plan to gain full support of the community

*An organizational chart

*Labor requirements and definition of duties

*A time schedule

*A detailed budget

Execution is the next step. After planning our work, we work our plan. The execution step consists of two parts:

*Undertaking action projects to solve the problems by yourself, and

*Playing the role of “catalytic agents” to stimulate or induce other people to act on problems which are beyond your capacity to solve yourself.

Sometimes it takes a long time before results are achieved but do not be discouraged. Just one successful cooperative project, no matter how small, will give the necessary self-confidence for taking up another one. Negative responses, resistance to change, and setbacks are only temporary and considered to be part of a development process. This will be a crucible test for the quality of our resolve and leadership. In many instances, only your sheer tenacity of purpose can overcome apathy and discouragement, and avoid the “ningas cogon” mentality.

A Variety of  Projects

A wide variety of Community Development projects have been undertaken by various groups around the world, and many more are waiting for your attention.  These projects may be classified according to five major groups: Public Service Improvements and City Beautification; Health and Sanitation; Education and Recreation; Economic Development; Civic and Governmental Affairs.

All these projects are only a means to an end.  Primary focus should always be given to what happens to Upsilonians and the rest of the citizens. Remember, the aim of Community Development is to mold individuals to become intelligent perceptive members of society who strive to become persons of greater value to their fellowmen.

The completion of action projects will not put an end to the Community Development program. What comes next is just as important as any of the four steps already completed. It is Evaluation.  Here you determine whether the results of your work measure up to the objectives you set beforehand.  Did your projects contribute to the development of intelligent citizens and self-reliant communities? An evaluation will help answer that question.

We live in a world of change. Just as a community undergoes changes with the passing of time, so must a program be evaluated and renewed with ever changing conditions. It is also advisable to re-evaluate the survey periodically because after a time, the data become obsolete. For example, new government officials and organization leaders get elected, often resulting in changes in policy and emphasis. Communities do not standstill.  New problems arise which may make old ones secondary.

Evaluation is also a process by which groups and individuals learn from their mistakes and, thereby, improve their methods of operation. Evaluation is an integral part of a development program and should be built right into it.

Summary and Conclusion

Through involvement in Community Development you acquire a great deal of knowledge about our community by means of the Investigation. The strong and weak points of the community are recognized and problem areas are identified during Analysis of the data gathered. Planning follows to map out a plan of action to solve the problems.  In Executing the plan of action, the people themselves get involved in solving the problems of the community. While undertaking action projects and acting as  “catalytic agents”, Upsilonians gain valuable experience in the art of persuasion, human relations, and leadership. You also may have opportunities to 'gather light to scatter'.  The community improves, but more important, the people develop their ability for self-help and cooperative action.  After completing projects, you undertake an Evaluation to determine whether the objectives of the program are, in fact, being realized. The survey data are reviewed and a new community study is started which in turn leads to a New Cycle of Community Development activities.

A Community Development Program, therefore, is a cycle of activities consisting of INVESTIGATION- ANALYSIS-PLANNING-EXECUTION-EVALUATION. The completion of a cycle lays the foundation for the start of a new one. Community Development does not end. It should not end; because we live in a world of change.

Abraham Lincoln once said, "I would like to see a man proud of the place in which he lives; and so live that the place will be proud of him."  You can rest assured, when you undertake Community Development, you will be proud of your community and your community will be proud of you!

Special Notes for Resident Chapters

1. It may be advisable to solicit the help of alumni fellows with managerial and business experience to act as consultants and resource persons when you undertake CD projects.

2. In your case, the campus is your community; the students, faculty members, and service personnel are the citizens; University officials are your local government officials; other student organizations and clubs are the other community organizations.

 3. After studying the C.D. Concept and becoming confident that it is something you want to undertake, you may initiate your CD Program with a Seminar on CD, inviting the citizens of the campus to attend.  Announce that the Chapter is embarking on a CD Program for the purpose of effecting progress in a specific area of need in the campus and that participation from all interested individuals and parties will be welcome and appreciated. This could be a major vehicle for recruitment.

4. You will want to require the participation of neophytes in all phases of your CD Program. This will provide many opportunities for them to show their resourcefulness, initiative, and character under varying conditions and stretch of time. They should not be allowed to act on the CD Program on their own as a group without supervision from the resident fellows. Their satisfactory performance on the CD Program can be a condition for their admission to the fraternity. At the same time, the CD Program will provide training in leadership to resident fellows while they perform some service to the community.

This intoduction is based on Community  Development Seminars conducted in Central and South America in 1966 by Rafael (Piling) Francia ’55  as a Staff Officer of Junior Chamber International.

Introduction to Community Development – by Rafael S. Francia’55